Il telaio antico, nella sua versione più classica, si compone di diverse parti: due fiancate laterali, due o più traverse ad esse perpendicolari per il loro sostegno, due subbi, uno anteriore per l’avvolgimento del tessuto, l’altro posteriore per il contenimento dell’ordito, la cassa battente, il pettine, i licci e i pedali per il movimento alternato dei licci, la navetta che permette il passaggio della spola.
L’angolo della tessitura a liccetti è corredato da un telaio tradizionaleimpostato secondo l’antico procedimento tessile che, fin dal XIII-XIV
secolo, ha permesso la realizzazione su tessuto di liste figurative stilizzate
per mezzo di un programma impostato manualmente sull’ordito e fissato
su alcune canne pendenti fra il subbio e i licci.
Qui invitiamo i visitatori a partecipare ad esperienze didattiche con la possibilità di accedere all’uso del programma utile a comprendere il passaggio che ha fornito le basi al processo d’industrializzazione in campo tessile. Lungo le pareti della grande sala abbiamo allestito un breve percorso fotografico nel quale si illustrano alcune opere di grandi artisti presenti nella nostra Provincia, dove sono rappresentati i tovagliati tessuti secondo questa preziosa tecnica.
Concordando la visita, inviteremo a visionare le immagini di un documentario esplicativo di tutte le varie fasi della produzione tessile tipica e tradizionale marchigiana e indicativo di quei siti museali, Chiese e Basiliche della nostra Regione in cui sono esposte opere dove tale particolare iconografia tessile viene raffigurata.
- THE AREA OF “LICCETTI” WEAVING
The second location is a large room in which, in a spacious area, we can find a loom set up according to techniques and methods typical of the textile tradition of the Marche Region.
The antique loom, in its most classical version, is composed of various parts: two lateral sides, two or more perpendicular beams that support them, two warp beams, one in front on which the woven fabric wraps around, the other at the back which holds the warp thread, the beater, the reed, the harnesses and the treadles for the alternating movement of the harnesses.
Choosing from this list a few fundamental parts, we would like to highlight them so as to describe them and to put alongside each of them a few phrases found in the Bible, in poetry and mythology.
The warp beam
its Italian name, “subbio” comes from the Latin word ‘subulum’ or “subbiu” as it is known in the dialect of Macerata; it is a large cylinder of wood placed perpendicularly to the sides of the loom and upon which are wound the warp threads (back beam) or the woven fabric (front beam).
From the Bible (1 Sam 17:7)
The shaft of his spear was like a weaver’s beam, and the head of his spear weighed six hundred shekels of iron. A shield-bearer walked in front of him.
Its Italian name “pettine” is also known in dialect as “pettene”, and is an element of the loom consisting of a frame made to hold small blades of bamboo or metal, parallel to each other, and through which pass the warp threads.
From the Bible (Judges 16:13,14)
”...Delilah then said to Samson, ‘Up to now you have been laughing at me and telling me lies. Tell me what would be needed to bind you.’ He replied, ‘If you wove the seven locks of my hair into the warp of a cloth and beat them together tight with the reed, I should lose my strength and become like any other man.’ She lulled him to sleep, then wove the seven locks of his hair into the warp, beat them together tight with the reed and shouted, ‘The Philistines are on you, Samson!’ He woke from his sleep and pulled out both reed and warp.”
Is a group of thread destined to form the length and width and height of a fabric, they are held tight on the loom from one warp beam to the other.
Warping is the preparation of the longitudinal threads through which the weft passes, the particular attention that is put in preparing the elements used in forming the warp, and the orderly disposition of the threads that composes it, permits the subsequent agility in weaving: in fact the word warp (“ordito”) is derived from Latin and signifies conception, planning, careful preparation and not simply getting started. Giving attention to each thread that makes up the ordito…in a wider sense, to be familiar with and careful in organizing a project, considering every element to the point of successfully achieving the pre-established goal.
From the Bible (Isaiah 38:12)
“My home has been pulled up, and thrown away like a shepherd’s tent; like a weaver, I have rolled up my life, he has cut me from the warp. From dawn to dark, you have been making an end of me;”
(...My loom up there. These threads of mine
and scars knots in the weft,…)
Angela Paola Caldelli “Tu m’hai sedotta” (“You have seduced me”)
is an accessory of the loom similar to a small wooden boat with a tapering shape, empty on the inside to hold the bobbin on which is wound the weft yarn. The function of the shuttle is to carry the bobbin from one end of the warp to the other in order to construct the fabric.
From the Bible (Job 7:6)
“Swifter than a weaver’s shuttle my days have passed, and vanished, leaving no hope behind”
“…I’d lean from the terrace of my father’s house
Toward the sound of your voice
And the quick click of your hands
At the heavy loom.
Giacomo Leopardi, To Silvia, (translated by Eamon Grennan)